The irregular behavior of parameter D” in the Earth-Moon telluric system discovered in 1971 by Dr. Robert R.Newton, chief astrophysicist of NASA proves irrefutably that solar eclipses of alleged antiquity reported to us in the “ancient” chronicles were actually medieval or fictitious. Conclusion: either astronomy or chronology of history is wrong.
Case B: 1000 years ago civilization didn’t exist, therefore people could not write as yet (sic!) to register the events of the full solar eclipses.
Case B: is theoretically possible but contradicts the consensual chronology of the world history completely.
The strange leap of parameter D” in the theory of lunar motion
Nowadays we have special calculation tables – the so-called canons – whose compilation was based on the theory of lunar motion. They contain the date of each eclipse, the area to be covered by the lunar shadow, the phase, etc. See the famous astronomical canon of Ginzel, for instance. If an ancient text describes some eclipse in enough detail, we can determine what characteristics of the eclipse had been observed – the phase, the geographical area that the shadow passes over, etc.
The comparison of these characteristics to the referential ones contained in the tables may give a concurrence with an eclipse possessing similar characteristics. If this proves a success, we can date the eclipse. However, it may turn out that several eclipses from the astronomical canon don’t fit the description; in this case, the dating is uncertain. All the eclipses described in the “ancient” and medieval sources have been dated by the following method to some extent at least.
Nowadays the datings of the “ancient” eclipses are occasionally used in astronomical research. For instance, the theory of lunar motion has the notion of the so-called parameter D” – the second derivative of lunar elongation that characterizes acceleration. Let us remind the reader of the definition of elongation.
Fig. 2.1 shows the solar orbit of the Earth and the telluric orbit of the moon. The angle between the vectors ES and EM is called lunar elongation D – the angle between the lines of sight drawn from the Earth to the Sun and the moon. Apparently, it is time-dependent. An example of the elongation of Venus can be seen in the picture on the right. Maximal elongation is the angle where the line of sight as drawn from Earth to Venus (E’V’) touches the orbit of Venus. One has to note that the orbits in fig. 2.1 are shown as circular while being elliptic in reality – however, since the eccentricity is low here, the ellipses are schematically drawn as circles.
Fig. 2.1. Lunar elongation is the angle between the vectors ES and EM. The elongation of Venus is the angle between ES and EV. The maximal elongation of Venus is the angle between E’S and E’V’.
Some computational problems related to astronomy require the knowledge of lunar acceleration as it had been in the past. The problem of calculating parameter D” over a large time interval as a time function was discussed in detail by the Royal Society of London and the British Academy of Sciences in 1972, and swept under the carpet.
The calculation of the parameter D” was based on the following scheme: the equation parameters of lunar motion, including D”, are taken with their modern values and then varied in such a way that the theoretically calculated characteristics of ancient eclipses coincide with the ones given for dated eclipses in ancient documents.
Parameter D” is ignored for the calculation of actual eclipse dates, since the latter is a rougher parameter whose calculation does not require the exact knowledge of lunar acceleration. Alterations in lunar acceleration affect secondary characteristics of the eclipse, such as the shadow track left by the moon on the surface of the Earth, which may be moved sideways a little.
The time dependence of D” was first calculated by the eminent American astronomer Robert Russel Newton. According to him, parameter D” can be “defined well by the abundant information about the dates scattered over the interval from 700 B.C. until the present day” (, page 113). Newton calculated 12 possible values of parameter D”, having based them on 370 “ancient” eclipse descriptions.
Since R. Newton trusted Scaligerian chronology completely, it is little wonder that he took the eclipse dates from Scaligerian chronological tables. The results of R. Newton combined with the results obtained by Martin, who was processed about 2000 telescopic observations of the moon from the period of 1627-1860 (26 values altogether) have made it possible to draw an experimental time dependency curve for D”, qv fig. 2.2
Fig. 2.2. The D” graph calculated by Robert Newton. Parameter D” is measured here as seconds divided by century. Parameter D” performs a sudden leap on the interval of the alleged VI-XI centuries A.D. Taken from  and .
According to R. Newton, “the most stunning fact… is the drastic drop in D” that begins with 700 [A.D. – A. F.] and continues until about 1300… This drop implies the existence of a “square wave” in the osculating value of D”… Such changes in the behavior of D”, and such rates of these changes, cannot be explained by modern geophysical theories” (, page 114; ).
Robert Newton wrote an entire monograph titled Astronomical Evidence Concerning Non-Gravitational Forces In The Earth-Moon System () that was concerned with trying to prove this mysterious gap in the behavior of D”, which manifested as a leap by an entire numeric order. One has to note that these mysterious non-gravitational forces failed to manifest in any other way at all.
Having studied the graph that was drawn as a result of these calculations, R. Newton had to mark that “between the years (-700) and (+500), the value of D” remains the lowest as compared to the ones that have been observed for any other moment during the last 1000 years” (, page 114).
Newton proceeds to tell us that “these estimations combined with modern data tell one that D” may possess amazingly large values, and that it has been subject to drastic and sudden fluctuations over the last 2000 years, to such an extent that its value became inverted around 800 A.D.” (, page 115). This means that either the Moon changed its orbit dramatically during V th to XI cy or Earth accelerated its rotation drastically. (sic!) .
- The D” value drops suddenly, and this leap by an entire order begins in the alleged V century A.D.;
- Beginning with the XI century and on, the values of the parameter D” become more or less constant and close to its modern value;
- In the interval between the alleged V and XI centuries, A.D. one finds D” values to be in complete disarray.
Contrary to the Neutral Point of Opinion (NPOV, sic!) rule the mainstream lies in WIKI: “American astronomer Robert Newton had explained the drop of parameter D” in terms of “non-gravitational” (i.e., tidal) forces”, whereby Robert Newton says in the article they refer to: “There are no satisfactory explanations of the accelerations. Existing theories of tidal friction are quite inadequate.”
The strange behavior of parameter D” has a valid explanation within the paradigm of the New Chronology.
Consensual erroneous chronology was elaborated in XVI-XVII centuries by kabbalist-numerologist Joseph Scaliger and his disciple Jesuit Dionysius Petavious. The mathematicians Dr. Fomenko and Dr. Nosovskiy have developed the theory of New Chronology that explains this phenomenon and corrects the parameter D” but leads to the revision of chronology and the world history.
The timeline of the civilization, based on New Chronology takes into account only the irrefutably dated non-contradictory events and artifacts, shrinks drastically to approximately 1000 years, and the key events move to their more probable place on the time axis. Сivilization is thereby defined as a hierarchical system consisting of state, army, ideology, religion, writing, and communication.