About

The Chronology is to return to the realm of applied mathematics from the clergy that sequestrated it in the XVI-XVII centuries.

This website is dedicated to the theory of New Chronology elaborated by Dr Anatoly T Fomenko et al in the course of 44 years of meticulous research with the toolbox of exact sciences. The initial impulse was given by the major discovery in the telluric system Earth-moon made in 1971 by NASA chief astrophysicist Dr Robert R Newton. History: Fiction or Science? series of books and e-books is the most explosive tractate on history that was ever written.

The list of 1534 sources, illustrations from ancient manuscripts, and countless facts are attesting to the falsity of the chronology used nowadays. The dominating historical discourse was essentially crafted in the XVI-XVII century from a rather contradictory jumble of sources such as innumerable copies of ancient Latin and Greek manuscripts whose originals had vanished in the Dark Ages, the allegedly irrefutable proof offered by late medieval astronomers resting upon the power of ecclesial authorities.

The consensual world history was manufactured in Europe in XVI-XIX centuries with political agenda of powers of that period on the basis of erroneous clerical chronology elaborated in XVI-XVII centuries by Kabbalist-numerologist Joseph Justus Scaliger and Jesuit Dionysius Petavius. The objections to such chronology by Sir Isaac Newton or Jean Hardouin (Curator of Louvre under Louis XVI) were discarded.

Thank you for your interest!


Authors and Personalities

Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko (b. 1945). Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Section of Mathematics of the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved Plateau’s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 National Premium of the Russian Federation (in Mathematics) for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamical systems and manifolds’ invariants theory. Author of 200 scientific publications, 28 monographs, and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, calculus of variations, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computational geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirical-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.

Gleb Vladimirovich Nosovskiy (b. 1958). Candidate of Physics and Mathematics (MSU, Moscow, 1988), a specialist in the theory of probability, mathematical statistics, the theory of probabilistic processes, theory of optimization, stochastic differential equations, computer modelling of stochastic processes, computer simulation. Worked as a researcher of computer geometry in Moscow Space Research Institute, in Moscow Machine Tools and Instruments Institute, in Aizu University in Japan. A faculty member of the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics MSU.

Robert Russell Newton (1918-1991) was an American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science, best known for his book The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy (1977). In Newton’s view, Ptolemy was “the most successful fraud in the history of science”. Newton showed that Ptolemy had predominantly obtained the astronomical results described in his work The Almagest by computation, and not by the direct observations that Ptolemy described. According to R. Newton, that was a conscious falsification.

Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) was a French and Dutch philologist and historian best known for his works on chronology. Born in Agen, he in 1559 went to Paris to study Greek and Latin and then began to teach himself Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, Persian, and the principal modern languages. He converted to Protestantism in 1562 and set out on travels to French and German universities and to Italy to study its antiquities.

After the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day (August 1572) and the persecution of French Protestants, he went to Geneva, where he taught at an academy, returning to France in 1574. He was called to the University of Leiden (1593), where he became known as the most erudite scholar of his time. He remained there until his death.

Scaliger’s greatest work is the Opus de emendatione tempore (1583; “Study on the Improvement of Time”), a study of previous calendars. In it, he compared the computations of time made by the various civilizations of antiquity, corrected what he considered their errors, and for the first time placed chronology on a scientific basis as he perceived it.

Kabbalist-numerologist Scaliger had considered himself in vain a great mathematician that solved the  ‘Quadrature of Circle’ problem by making π=3.16 (sic!). This ‘discovery’ was laughed at by the French mathematician François Viete, considered to be the father of algebra.

His other major work is Thesaurus temporum, complectens Eusebi Pamphili Chronicon (1609; “The Thesaurus of Time, Including the Chronicle of Eusebius Pamphilus”), a reconstruction of the Chronicle of the early Christian historian Eusebius Pamphilus and a collection of Greek and Latin remnants placed in chronological order.

Two other treatises (published in 1604 and 1616) established numismatics, the study of coins, as a new and reliable tool in historical research. His other works were collected and published posthumously in 1610, and two collections of his correspondence appeared in 1624 and 1627.

Dionysius Petavius (Denis Pétau, 1583-1652) that followed in the steps of Joseph Scaliger, was a French Jesuit theologian. Born at Orléans, attended the University of Paris, then he followed the theological lectures at the Sorbonne. In 1603 was appointed to a lectureship at the University of Bourges, but resigned two years later to become a Jesuit.

Pétau had inserted some masterly dissertations on chronology; in 1627 he brought out his De doctrina temporum, and later the Tabulae chronologicae (1628, 1629, 1633, 1657). It surpassed Scaliger’s De Emendatione temporum (Paris, 1583), and prepared the ground for the works of the Benedictines. A summary of it appeared in 1633 (1635, 1641, etc.) under the title of Rationarium temporum, of which numerous reprints and translations into French, English, and Italian have been made.

Denis taught rhetoric at Reims, La Flèche, and at the Collège de Clermont. Later taught positive theology for twenty-two years. In 1629, at the invitation of Philip IV, taught ecclesiastical history at Madrid; in 1639, at the invitation of Pope Urban VIII, became a cardinal in Rome. A crater on the Moon is named Petavius in his honour.

Dear sceptical Reader-Antagonist,

Thank you for looking at or mayhap joining a riot! Feel younger by a couple of millennia. Frankly speaking, we like invigorating History à la Fomenko. For an Alternative History, it is certainly one. The best part of it is that this version of Universal History has astronomy, statistics and computers on its side.

Your scepticism is welcome. Just add to it a touch of your own sound reason and logic when reading this book. Step by step you will come to simple, but a mind-boggling conclusion that Antiquity and Dark Ages are phantoms invented in XVI – XVIII centuries. Human civilization is barely 1000 years old!

Not quite what you have learned in school? This version of world history is more substantiated by hard facts and logic – validated by new astronomical research and statistical analysis of ancient manuscripts – than all that you have learned, read and heard about history before.

The so-called universal classic world history is a pack of intricate lies for all events prior to the XVI century. It was completely fabricated in the XVI-XVIII centuries. It’s likely that nobody told you before, but there is not a single piece of firm written evidence or artefact that is reliably and independently dated prior to the XI century.

Naturally, after everything you’ve learned, read and heard in school and university, you will not believe that the classical history of ancient Rome, Greece, Asia, Egypt, China, Japan, India, etc., is manifestly false. Naturally you’ll point burning accusing fingers to the pyramids in Egypt, to the Coliseum in Rome and Great Wall of China etc., and claim, aren’t they really ancient?

They are certainly very old, but what proves they are scores of thousands of years old? The history described in written chronicles begins with the XI century only. Everything prior to that is pre-history, which we can only guess about. Homo sapiens invented writing only 1000 years ago. Once invented, writing was immediately and irreversibly put to the use of ruling powers and science.

The consensual chronology we live with was essentially crafted in the XVI century from the contradictory mix of innumerable copies of ancient Latin and Greek manuscripts (all originals have somehow disappeared in the Dark Ages, as illiterate monks kept only copies) and the irrefutable proofs delivered by the late mediaeval astronomers, cemented by the authority of writings of the Church Fathers.


We learn early in life about ancient history in junior school classes. Children love the magical lessons of history – they are like real-life fairy tales. Teachers recite breathtaking stories; very soon we learn by heart the names and deeds of brave warriors, wise philosophers, fabulous pharaohs, cunning high priests and greedy scribes. We learn of gigantic
pyramids and sinister castles, kings and queens, dukes and barons, powerful heroes and beautiful ladies, emaciated saints and low-life traitors. We are caught up in tales of cruel wars, merciless Roman legions, noble knights, crusades and contests. We are thrilled by perilous sea voyages and discoveries, passions and adventures. What an exciting journey it is!

As we grow up, our love of history grows stronger too. We watch megalomaniac Hollywood productions, read historical fiction, buy glossy expensive books about mysteries, admire archaeological finds, go to museums, and travel to Egypt, Rome, Greece and China. Yes, we understand now so much better, the universal history of humanity, and the rise and fall of civilizations. The history of humanity began so very long ago. Per ternia ad astra! (Through the thickets to the stars!)

There is much fantasy to be found in history. The ancient history of Antiquity and the Middle Ages is an enormous edifice of unspeakable perfection and beauty literally left hanging in the air. It simply has no proven and reliable scientific dated documentary foundation. World history universally accepted today is based on presumptions. You might rightfully object that there are zillions of historical documents, manuscripts, ancient papyri, parchments, old and not so old books, buzzing with references to, from and about the past. There appears to be enough historical material to completely reconstruct the glorious past!

Yes, there are more than enough ‘documents’ to blind you forever; enough to lead you astray from the paths of sound reason and logic. Yes, there is enough material to generate a further million of dazzling Hollywood blockbusters, such as «Gladiator» with the convincing acting of Russell Crowe; enough sizzling ideas for a further billion of books. Everyone wrongly presumes that the reconstruction of the past is simple. One takes an ancient chronicle, translates it into contemporary language, and that’s it. History is reconstructed.

Alas, that is not so!

Ancient history is, first of all, a written history based on the following sources: documents, manuscripts, printed books, paintings, monuments and artefacts. When a school textbook tells us that Genghis Khan or Alexander the Great in years X, Y, Z have each conquered half of the world, it means only that it is so said in some of the written sources. Seemingly simple questions do not always have clear, unambiguous answers. When were these sources written? Where and by whom were they found? For each of those two questions, the answers are very complex and require in-depth research to reflect the true answers and historical events.

It is further presumed that there are numerous carefully preserved ancient and medieval chronicles available, written by Genghis Khan’s or Alexander the Great contemporaries and eyewitnesses to their fantastic conquests, which are kept today in the National Library of Mongolia or Greece; in the Library of Congress or in the private collection of Microsoft.

That also is not so.

Only fairly recent sources of information are available, having been written hundreds or even thousands of years after the events. In most cases, they have been written in the XVI-XVIII centuries, or even later. As a rule, these sources suffered considerable multiple manipulations, falsifications and distortions by editing. It is a well-documented fact that at the same time, innumerable originals of ancient documents under various pretexts, like heresy, for example, were destroyed in Europe.

Of course, some real events were the source to most of the written documents, even those that were later falsified and manipulated. However, the same real event could have been described in chronicles by authors writing in different languages and having contradictory points of view. There are many cases where such descriptions – found in sources reliably dated before the invention of printing – are plainly unrecognizable as the same event.

The names of persons and geographical sites often changed meaning and location during the course of the centuries. The exact same name could take on an entirely different meaning in different historical epochs. Geographical locations were clearly defined on maps, only with the advent of printing. This made possible the circulation of identical copies of the same map for purposes in the fields of the military, navigation, education and governance, etc. Before the invention of printed maps, each original map was a unique work of art, both non-exact and contradictory.

Historians from Oxford will say: «… everybody knows that Julius Caesar lived in the first century B.C. Do you really doubt it?» Yes, we really do. For us, this statement is only a point of view that is totally and utterly dominant today. But it is one of many possible points of view until the fact is proven without a shadow of a doubt. In turn, we will also ask these historians some simple questions, «Where did you get your information? From a textbook? Not good enough. Who was the first to say that Julius Caesar lived in the first century B.C.? What book, document and/or manuscript can you quote as a primary source? Who is the author of this source? When was this primary source written down, if you please?»

We do not accept «the textbook says so» type of answer as proof. As soon as you dig for proof slightly deeper than the school textbook, the adamant grounds for the totally and utterly dominant point of view suddenly evaporate. Poof! As a matter of fact, not only You but the whole world community of professional historians will not be able to come with up irrefutable documentary proof that Julius Caesar ever existed, be it on paper, papyri, parchment or stone. Idem for all great names of Antiquity. The proof is unavailable!

Cambridge historians say: «..here is the ancient chronicle written in the twelfth century A.D., which clearly says, Julius Caesar lived in the first century B.C.« The question is: What proves that this chronicle was written in the twelfth century and not in the seventeenth century? Is your written source scientifically dated? The fact that bronze (or any material) panel made in the twenty-first century with the lettering: «Temple of Jupiter built in I century B.C. by the personal command of the Great Magnificent Caesar the Emperor of Rome» is hanging on the ancient looking edifice is not irrefutable proof of when, why, or what it was built for, even if the building is located in Rome, Italy, EC.

Indeed, the dating of the chronicle from the twelfth century has to be proven. That is where the buck stops. The historians are unable to prove the date of the writing of their «old» written sources or produce independent datings of any ancient artefacts. For the last 300 years, they have been successfully selling to the public ancient looking coins minted in recent day, with a tails inscription of «coined in 2000 B.C.» and heads inscribed with the portrait of Jesus Christ. Better than that – most of the rare sources that survived to our day and can be reliably dated back to the X-XIV centuries do not show the polished textbook picture of classical history. They show a picture utterly different. Therefore such witnesses and sources are not admissible to the orderly court of history! Learned historians say that such sources are primitive and full of errors, wrong names and locations, chronologically impossible situations, etc., so in effect, these sources are unfortunate concoctions of half illiterate monks, hermits and travellers – therefore they cannot be accepted to the sacred temple of universal classical history.

The existing methods of dating old and ancient sources and artefacts are both non-exact and contradictory. This is, unfortunately, the case for archaeological, dendrochronological, paleographical and carbon dating. Judge for yourself.

Archaeological dating: In an Egyptian dig of a pharaoh dynasty burial site attributed to XVII-XIX, (1500 years B.C – it is allegedly known for a fact!) an archaeologist finds a pot (Article A) from Greece, attributed to the Mycenae culture. It is inferred that they are from the same age (1500 years B.C.). Fine so far. In a dig in Greece, definitely attributed to the Mycenae culture, another archaeologist finds a «peculiar» button (Article B) next to a similar pot, and it is inferred that they are from the same age (1500 B.C.) (Age of Article A = age of Article B). In digs in Germany, archaeologists find other objects next to similar «peculiar» buttons, so it is also inferred that all objects (Articles C, D, ..Z) found in the German dig are from the same age (1500 years B.C). Logical? (Age of A=age of B .. =age of Z)

But, one day the archaeologists find additional similar buttons in a dig of the fairly recent dolmen of King Bjorn (born 953 A.C.), totally and irrefutably dated from the 10th century. Archaeologists cannot unequivocally say King Bjorn’s dolmen is 1000+1500=2500 years old. They just call such a case a «mystery» – and …brush it under the carpet.

Radio-carbon method produces reliable dating of objects of organic origin with the exactitude of +/- 1500 years, therefore it is too crude for the dating of historical events.

The dendrochronological method is unable to date reliably events in Europe older than 700 years.

All methods of dating used today are not independent of classical Scaliger chronology.

Moreover, all these “fine” methods were developed and calibrated on the basis of the classical chronology. Circulus vitiosus.


The strange thing is that all proofs relative to all historically important names and events of ancient history have first appeared in sources such as, documents, books and manuscripts that can be reliably dated
only as late as the XVI-XVIII centuries. These books and manuscripts are full of references to, from and about the older books, documents and manuscripts, which have all mysteriously disappeared! There is not a single reliably dated original ancient contemporary source. Sic! What a mystery/thriller, indeed. Even a flatfoot policeman, aspiring to become a detective by correspondence, will smell something fishy here. Wouldn’t you?

Why is this so?

The «sources» are part of classical chronology (manipulation). They were manufactured in XVI-XVIII centuries by the way of falsification, distortion and manipulation of the old originals. As a rule, the originals were pitilessly destroyed. Most Greek, Roman, medieval chronicles, annals and memoirs were massively produced in XVI-XVIII centuries. In fact, for the last 200 years, the whole class of historians created, researched, perfected and polished a world of phantom universal history and classical civilization artfully constructed by their predecessors in the course of XVI-XVIII centuries at the command of powers of that time. They have literally polished the real world history into oblivion!

The ancient history you and I were taught at school is not the truth in the final instance, but just currently dominant and universally accepted version of history. It is only one of the possible versions, until the irrefutable proof to the contrary. This version is based on the «chronological hypothesis», formulated for the first time by the chronologists and historians Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609 and Dionysus Petavius (1583-1652). Their chronology is just as irrefutable as the quadrature of the circle of which Joseph Scaliger was anecdotic, but the ferocious protagonist.

Admire the Almagest which is the cornerstone of the entire edifice of contemporary chronology! It is supposed to have been written in the II century AD by Ptolemy, the founding father of astronomy. This presumably antediluvian tractate catalogues 1028 observable stars with the precision of 10′-15′ (arc minutes) of longitude. Now, the rotation of the Earth makes the night sky make a turn of 1 arc degree every four minutes. One arc degree consists of 60 arc minutes, which means that the sky rotation speed equals 15′ (arc minutes) per one minute of time. Ptolemy’s measurements could not have possibly been performed with either a sundial, clepsydra, or an hourglass due to their imprecision. Could he have used his Grandfather’s Swiss chronometer that had a minute hand? This seems most improbable considering that minute hands are a novelty introduced to clocks as recently as 1550 AD.

Another solid pillar of universal history is the Bronze Age, that has taken place is thousands of years ago. Now, to make bronze you need 90% copper and 10% tin. Simple. But the technology for tin extraction dates back as late as 14th century A.D. The Scaliger chronologists did not bother to consult a chemist, they have been driven by altogether different considerations, neither caring much for tin nor indeed for science itself! As a result, ‘ancient’ Greek heroes happily hack at each other with bronze swords that need tin for their manufacture, which has not been discovered as yet.

Explore, and You will find sufficient proof to reach step by step for yourself the inevitable conclusion that the classical Scaliger-Petavius chronology is false and therefore, that the history of ancient and medieval world universally accepted today, is also false. After reading this book you will certainly have a fresh and very suspicious outlook on everything said or printed about “ancient” and “enigmatic” Roman, Greek and Egyptian, medieval as well as all other “lost and found” civilizations.

The ‘New Chronology’ group of mathematicians of international renown from Moscow State University, headed by Anatoly T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovsky have elaborated on the chronology of history and applied powerful empirical-statistical and astronomical methods to substantiate their findings. The Chronology group has worked on this project for over 30 years. Their results are truly staggering and amazing. The Russian academic community of historians has called upon the riot police, to no avail! Under the powerful headlights of new statistical and astronomical methods of dating, the arrogant mirage of a beautiful edifice of universal classical history turns into an ugly shambles of late and dark medieval politics.

Warning!

This book here contains lots of data, illustrations, charts, formulae, mathematical, statistical and astronomical proof. You may as well skip them in your first reading. They were introduced in this introductory volume as ammunition for your eventual discussions with protagonists of classical chronology. In fact, before reading this book, everybody is such a protagonist. You are certain to be met with disbelief if you share what you’ve read with other people. We do not want you to be defenceless in the face of inevitable scepticism. This book contains enough material to silence any historian.

We remind you that classical history consists of hundreds of volumes, it is not only beautiful but also a well-protected edifice. It will take many years of research to dismantle and to reconstruct it.


“Discussing the Divine Comedy with Dante”

Painting by Dai Dudu, Li Tiezi and Zhang An (2006)

You have certainly noticed the extraordinary painting in our website’s header and are curious who exactly is depicted there. The painting is by little-known Chinese artists Dai Dudu, Li Tiezi and Zhang An (who appear in the top right of the picture). It has become an internet hit in 2006, with people fascinated by the challenge of trying to identify all 103 figures. They are perhaps the ultimate dinner party guests. Stalin engages Leonardo da Vinci in conversation, Beethoven serenades Audrey Hepburn on the piano and Shakespeare is sandwiched between Elvis and Mozart. Bill Clinton raises a glass in cheer, while Churchill smokes a cigar and Margaret Thatcher looks on… Surrounding them all are images of some of man’s defining creations – Stonehenge, the Pyramids, the typewriter, the car… The painting is full of humor and hidden sense. Seeing George W. Bush (21) with a telescope, one may think he is searching for Osama bin Laden, but the latter is… right behind him (22), leading the alleged Israeli tribes back to the desert. What makes “W” smile so happily then? Follow the direction of the telescope and you’ll see it on the TV screen.

  1. Bill Gates, Microsoft founder.
  2. Homer, Greek poet.
  3. Cui Jian, Chinese singer.
  4. Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary.
  5. Pavel Korchagin, the protagonist of the Soviet novel How the Steel was Tempered, as played by the Russian actor Vladimir Konkin.
  6. Bill Clinton, former U.S. President.
  7. Peter the Great, Russian tzar, emperor.
  8. Margaret Thatcher, former U.K. Prime Minister.
  9. Bruce Lee, Chinese American and Hong Kong martial artist.
  10. Winston Churchill, former U.K. Prime Minister.
  11. Henri Matisse, French painter.
  12. Genghis Khan, Mongol emperor.
  13. Napoleon Bonaparte, French emperor.
  14. Che Guevara, Marxist guerrilla.
  15. Fidel Castro, Cuban leader.
  16. Marlon Brando, American actor.
  17. Yasser Arafat, former Palestinian leader.
  18. Julius Caesar, Roman emperor.
  19. Claire Lee Chennault, American military aviator.
  20. Luciano Pavarotti, Italian singer.
  21. George W. Bush, former U.S. President.
  22. Osama bin Laden.
  23. Charles, Prince of Wales.
  24. Liu Xiang, Chinese Olympic champion, hurdler.
  25. Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary-General.
  26. Zhang An, painter, co-author of this painting.
  27. Mikhail Gorbachev, former Soviet leader.
  28. Li Tiezi, Chinese painter, co-author of this painting.
  29. Dante Alighieri, Italian poet.
  30. Dai Dudu, Chinese painter, co-author of this painting.
  31. Pelé, Brazilian football player.
  32. Guan Yu, Chinese warlord.
  33. Ramses II, Egyptian pharaoh.
  34. Charles de Gaulle, former French President, general.
  35. Albert Nobel, Swedish chemist, founder of the Nobel Prizes.
  36. Franklin D. Roosevelt, former U.S. President.
  37. Ernest Hemingway, American novelist.
  38. Elvis Presley, American singer.
  39. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist, scientific director of the Manhattan Project.
  40. William Shakespeare, English poet and playwright.
  41. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer.
  42. Steven Spielberg, American film director.
  43. Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter.
  44. Marie Curie, Polish-French physicist.
  45. Zhou Enlai, Chinese statesman.
  46. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer.
  47. Laozi, Chinese philosopher.
  48. Marilyn Monroe, American actress.
  49. Salvador Dali, Spanish painter.
  50. Dowager Cixi, Chinese empress.
  51. Ariel Sharon, former Israeli Prime Minister.
  52. Qi Baishi, Chinese painter.
  53. Qin Shi Huang, Chinese emperor.
  54. Mother Teresa, Roman Catholic missionary.
  55. Song Qingling, Chinese politician.
  56. Rabindranath Tagore, Indian poet.
  57. Otto von Bismarck, Prussian German statesman.
  58. Run Run Shaw, Hong Kong media mogul.
  59. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Swiss philosopher, writer.
  60. Audrey Hepburn, American actress.
  61. Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer.
  62. Adolf Hitler, German Nazi leader.
  63. Benito Mussolini, Italian fascist leader.
  64. Saddam Hussein, former President of Iraq.
  65. Maxim Gorky, Soviet writer.
  66. Sun Yat-Sen, Chinese revolutionary.
  67. Den Xiaoping, Chinese statesman.
  68. Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet.
  69. Lu Xun, Chinese writer.
  70. Joseph Stalin, Soviet leader.
  71. Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian artist, scientist.
  72. Karl Marx, German philosopher.
  73. Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher.
  74. Abraham Lincoln, former U.S. President.
  75. Mao Zedong, Chinese leader.
  76. Charlie Chaplin, English-American actor and filmmaker.
  77. Henry Ford, founder of Ford Motor Company.
  78. Lei Feng, Chinese soldier, symbol of the Maoist propaganda.
  79. Norman Bethune, Canadian physician and medical innovator.
  80. Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis.
  81. Juan Antonio Samaranch, former International Olympic Committee president.
  82. Chiang Kai Shek, Chinese political and military leader.
  83. Queen Elizabeth II.
  84. Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist.
  85. Li Bai, Chinese poet.
  86. Corneliu Baba, Romanian painter.
  87. Auguste Rodin, French sculptor.
  88. Dwight Eisenhower, former U.S. President.
  89. Michael Jordan, American basketball player.
  90. Hideki Tojo, former Japanese Prime Minister.
  91. Michelangelo, Italian Renaissance painter.
  92. Yi Sun-Sin, Korean naval commander.
  93. Mike Tyson, American boxer.
  94. Vladimir Putin, Russian leader.
  95. Hans Christian Andersen, Danish author.
  96. Shirley Temple, American actress.
  97. Albert Einstein, German physicist.
  98. Moses, Hebrew religious leader.
  99. Confucius, Chinese philosopher.
  100. Gandhi, Indian political and spiritual leader.
  101. Vincent Van Gogh, Dutch painter.
  102. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French painter.
  103. Marcel Duchamp, French artist.

There is in fact a 104th figure (next to Osama bin Laden, 22), whose identity is unknown. This character was inspired by the photo taken by Henri Cartier-Bresson in Srinagar, Kashmir, 1948.

(Taken with permission from The Dot Connector Magazine, Issue 6, 2009.)

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