“History: Fiction or Science?” series of 26 books is the most explosive tractate on history ever written proving irrefutably that the timeline of the civilization that takes into account only the irrefutably dated non-contradictory events and artifacts barely exceeds 1000 years!
Why and when the Crusades? The Christianity originated in the Byzantine Empire in XII century as Oriental Orthodox Catholic religion that went in the XII-XV centuries through the subsequent splits, mutations into the competing Orthodox, Catholic, Western, Eastern and Oriental Christianity, Mithraism, Judaism, Buddism, and Islam. Crusades of 1189-1192 AD and 1199-1204 AD to Jerusalem-Constantinople were military operations under the banner of Christianity by the followers and relatives of Jesus idem Emperor Andronicus killed during a religious mutiny. Crusades have ended with the Sack of Constantinople in 1204. Crusades provoked a counter-reaction of Islam that by XIII century started to morph from an early Christian belief into a powerful religious movement, formed a Caliphate that spans from Middle Asia to Spain. Constantinople was taken by Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, renamed Istanbul, and Byzantium became a part of the Muslim Ottoman Empire.
About the Author: Dr.Fomenko, Anatoly. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the classical Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs, and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computational geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirical-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of Antiquity and the Middle Ages.